This special issue of Fiscal Studies brings together a set of papers on the collection and analysis of household-level data on wealth. Many of the papers in this issue are drawn from a conference entitled ‘Household Wealth Data and Public Policy’ held in March 2015. The conference included papers that looked at the distribution of wealth, mechanisms generating wealth inequality,saving behaviour over the life cycle, public finance issues, how wealth data can inform an understanding of macroeconomic dynamics and the challenges associated with collecting data on the distribution of wealth.