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Gender inequality is high on the public agenda, but how significant is it and how has it changed over time? Here, we look at the different conditions that women and men experience in work and pay and how this varies across countries.

We will also look beyond economic outcomes, considering inequalities in time use – whether work is paid or unpaid – as well as changes in social attitudes about women and work.

Low pay, low productivity firms and fertility

We will examine what we know about the causes of gender inequalities. Does the difference in pay between men and women, for example, reflect discrimination by employers? Or, are they more likely due to women working in low-paid occupations or for low-productivity firms?

We will also highlight the importance of fertility and how being either a male or female parent can make a difference to the gender pay gap.

Finally, we will consider the consequences of gender inequalities − for individuals, households and wider society − and what policy can do to achieve greater equality between men and women.