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Education spending - annual reports

In our annual series of reports on education spending, funded by the Nuffield Foundation, we bring together data on education spending per student across the life cycle and provide analysis about the major issues facing different sectors.

2021 report

For this fourth annual report, for 2021, we have adopted a slightly different approach. In particular, we published a range of smaller outputs throughout the year on different topics to provide more timely and rapid analysis of the resource challenges facing different phases of education.

We will also be using new ways to illustrate the spending challenges and policy choices across different stages of education, such as our new online student finance calculator

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Note: Early years figures are spending per child for 3- and 4-year-olds taking up a place. Secondary school spending per pupil includes spending on school sixth forms. Further education figures represent spending per student aged 16–18 in further education and sixth-form colleges. Higher education figures are cohort-based numbers divided by 3 – an approximate course length. 

Source: Figure 4.1 of this year's annual report.

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Historical reports

Annual report - 2020

In our 2020 report, we focused on the medium-term challenges facing providers as they respond to substantial changes in student numbers, as well as the loss of learning and increased inequalities that emerged during lockdown. 

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Annual report - 2019

Our second annual report on education spending in England provided measures of spending per student in the early years, schools, further education and higher education back to the early 1990s. These series of day-to-day spending per pupil allowed us to understand how policy decisions have affected the resources available to students in different stages of education over the long run. We also analysed the effects of the 2019 Spending Round and the longer-term spending options for policymakers.

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Annual report - 2018

Our first annual report on education spending in England provided measures of spending per student in the early years, schools, further education and higher education back to the early 1990s. These series of day-to-day spending per pupil allowed us to understand how policy decisions have affected the resources available to students in different stages of education over the long run.

Find out more >>>