This is the fourth and final report of the longitudinal evaluation of the Education Maintenance Allowance (EMA) pilots which followed two cohorts of young people who completed Year 11 in the summers of 1999 and 2000. The EMA pilots were instigated to test what might be done to address a number of policy concerns. These related to low rates of participation in post-16 education (particularly among young men and those from lower socio-economic groups), the high proportion of young people who were not in education, employment or training (NEET), and low rates of retention in education at 17 and 18 years of age. The main aims of the evaluation were to assess the impact of EMA on participation, retention and achievement in post-16 full-time education. EMA was implemented nationally in 2004, although some aspects of the national scheme differ to those of the pilot scheme.