We assess the evolution of inequality over time in Norway and the underlying factors which determine such changes. Inequality is low in Norway, and remains relatively unchanged from 1980 to 2019. However, these aggregate measures mask persistent inequalities across sex, education and immigrant status. Among men, inequality increases from 1980 while the opposite is true for women. Low-educated workers fare increasingly worse over time relative to middle- and high-educated workers. Despite this, the earnings of women lag behind those of lower-educated men and considerable gender gaps exist. While immigration increases considerably, immigration itself does not drive the rise in inequality among men. Decomposing the importance of unions for earnings reveals that the declining importance of unionisation for earnings among men in the bottom half of the distribution may be an important factor behind rising inequality.